John Ruskin

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John Ruskin

John Ruskin (1819-1900) var ein engelsk forfattar, kjend som litteratur- og samfunnskritikar.


Teke frå Sitert av John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury i The Use of Life, chapter IV: "Recreation"
Opphavleg tekst:
«Sunshine is delicious, rain is refreshing, wind braces us up, snow is exhilarating; there is really no such thing as bad weather, only different kinds of good weather.»

Informasjon
Opphav: John Ruskin

Kjelde:The Use of Life (bok)
År: 1894

Periode: Viktoriatida
Sjå òg
Stikkord
vêr
optimisme
mogleik
«Det finst eigentleg ikkje noko slikt som dårleg vêr, berre ulike typar godvêr.»
Sky-studiar av Ruskin.


Communauté silhouette modif.jpg

«Det finst eigentleg ikkje noko slikt som dårleg vêr, berre ulike typar godvêr.»


Teke frå Engelsk Wikiquote, som oppgav A Joy for Ever, lecture II, section 74 Sitert av John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury i The Use of Life, chapter IV: "Recreation"
Opphavleg tekst:
«You talk of the scythe of Time, and the tooth of Time: I tell you, Time is scytheless and toothless; it is we who gnaw like the worm — we who smite like the scythe. It is ourselves who abolish — ourselves who consume: we are the mildew, and the flame.»

Informasjon
Opphav: John Ruskin

Kjelde:A Joy for Ever (bok)
År: 1857

Stikkord
tid
ljåar
tenner
ormar
ende
menneske
øydelegging
«Tida er utan ljå eller tann; det er me som gneg som ormar, me som slår som ljåen.»


Communauté silhouette modif.jpg

«Tida er utan ljå eller tann; det er me som gneg som ormar, me som slår som ljåen.»

Sitat på engelsk[endre]

  • No small misery is caused by overworked and unhappy people, in the dark views which they necessarily take up themselves, and force upon others, of work itself.
    • Pre-Raphaelitism, section 1 (1851)
  • For certainly it is excellent discipline for an author to feel that he must say all he has to say in the fewest possible words, or his reader is sure to skip them; and in the plainest possible words, or his reader will certainly misunderstand them.
    • A Joy for Ever, note 6 (1857)
  • Fine art is that in which the hand, the head, and the heart of man go together.
    • The Two Paths, Lecture II: The Unity of Art, section 54 (1859)
  • The greatest efforts of the race have always been traceable to the love of praise, as its greatest catastrophes to the love of pleasure.
    • Sesame and Lilies, lecture I: Of Kings' Treasures, section 3 (1864-1865)
  • There is but one question ultimately to be asked respecting every line you draw, Is it right or wrong? If right, it most assuredly is not a "free" line, but an intensely continent, restrained and considered line; and the action of the hand in laying it is just as decisive, and just as "free" as the hand of a first-rate surgeon in a critical incision.
    • Cestus of Aglaia, chapter VI, section 72 (1865-66)


Teke frå Engelsk Wikiquote, som oppgav The Crown of Wild Olive, lecture I: Work, sections 23-24 (1866)
Opphavleg tekst:
«Ask a great money-maker what he wants to do with his money, — he never knows. He doesn't make it to do anything with it. He gets it only that he may get it. "What will you make of what you have got?" you ask. "Well, I'll get more," he says. Just as at cricket, you get more runs. There's no use in the runs, but to get more of them than other people is the game. So all that great foul city of London there, — rattling, growling, smoking, stinking, — a ghastly heap of fermenting brickwork, pouring out poison at every pore, — you fancy it is a city of work? Not a street of it! It is a great city of play; very nasty play and very hard play, but still play.»

Informasjon
Opphav: John Ruskin

Kjelde:The Crown of Wild Olive (bok)
År: 1866

Stikkord
London
byar
arbeid
leik
gift
«Heile den store, fæle byen London der — skramlande, knurrande, røykande, stinkande — ein gyseleg haug gjærande murstein, som slepp ut gift frå kvar pore — trur du det er ein arbeidande by? Ikkje i ei einaste gate! Det er ein stor leikande by, svært fæl leik og svært hard leik, men framleis leik.»


Communauté silhouette modif.jpg

«Heile den store, fæle byen London der — skramlande, knurrande, røykande, stinkande — ein gyseleg haug gjærande murstein, som slepp ut gift frå kvar pore — trur du det er ein arbeidande by? Ikkje i ei einaste gate! Det er ein stor leikande by, svært fæl leik og svært hard leik, men framleis leik.»

  • A little group of wise hearts is better than a wilderness full of fools.
    • The Crown of Wild Olive, lecture III: War, section 114 (1866)
  • What we think, or what we know, or what we believe is, in the end, of little consequence. The only consequence is what we do.
    • The Crown of Wild Olive, lecture IV: The Future of England, section 151 (1866)
  • For when we are interested in the beauty of a thing, the oftener we can see it the better; but when we are interested only by the story of a thing, we get tired of hearing the same tale told over and over again, and stopping always at the same point — we want a new story presently, a newer and better one — and the picture of the day, and novel of the day, become as ephemeral as the coiffure or the bonnet of the day. Now this spirit is wholly adverse to the existence of any lovely art. If you mean to throw it aside to-morrow, you can never have it to-day.
    • On the Condition of Modern Art, lecture (1867)
  • Labour without joy is base. Labour without sorrow is base. Sorrow without labour is base. Joy without labour is base.
    • Time and Tide, letter V (1867)
  • Your honesty is not to be based either on religion or policy. Both your religion and policy must be based on it. Your honesty must be based, as the sun is, in vacant heaven; poised, as the lights in the firmament, which have rule over the day and over the night.
    • Time and Tide, letter VIII (1867)
  • Punishment is the last and least effective instrument in the hands of the legislator for the prevention of crime.
    • Notes on the General Principles of Employment for the Destitute and Criminal Classes (1868)
  • Engraving is, in brief terms, the Art of Scratch.
    • Ariadne Florentina: Six Lectures on Wood and Metal Engraving, with Appendix, lecture I: Definition of the Art of Engraving, section 34 (1872)
  • In great states, children are always trying to remain children, and the parents wanting to make men and women of them. In vile states, the children are always wanting to be men and women, and the parents to keep them children.
    • Mornings in Florence, part III, section 49 (1875)
  • Of all the bête, clumsy, blundering, boggling, baboon-blooded stuff I ever saw on a human stage, that thing last night beat — as far as the acting and story went — and of all the affected, sapless, soulless, beginningless, endless, topless, bottomless, topsiturviest, tuneless and scrannelpipiest — tongs and boniest — doggerel of sounds I ever endured the deadliness of, that eternity of nothing was the deadliest, so far as the sound went. I never was so relieved, so far as I can remember in my life, by the stopping of any sound — not excepting railway whistles — as I was by the cessation of the cobbler’s bellowing.
  • My entire delight was in observing without being myself noticed,— if I could have been invisible, all the better. I was absolutely interested in men and their ways, as I was interested in marmots and chamois, in tomtits and trout. If only they would stay still and let me look at them, and not get into their holes and up their heights! The living inhabitation of the world — the grazing and nesting in it, — the spiritual power of the air, the rocks, the waters, to be in the midst of it, and rejoice and wonder at it, and help it if I could, — happier if it needed no help of mine, — this was the essential love of Nature in me, this the root of all that I have usefully become, and the light of all that I have rightly learned.
    • Praeterita, volume I, chapter IX (1885-1889)
  • There is really no such thing as bad weather, only different kinds of good weather.

The Seven Lamps of Architecture (1849)[endre]

When we build, let us think that we build for ever.
  • It is the glistening and softly spoken lie; the amiable fallacy; the patriotic lie of the historian, the provident lie of the politician, the zealous lie of the partisan, the merciful lie of the friend, and the careless lie of each man to himself, that cast that black mystery over humanity, through which we thank any man who pierces, as we would thank one who dug a well in a desert.
    • Chapter II: The Lamp of Truth, section 1
  • I do not believe that ever any building was truly great, unless it had mighty masses, vigorous and deep, of shadow mingled with its surface.
    • Chapter III: The Lamp of Power, section 13
  • Work first and then rest. Work first, and then gaze, but do not use golden ploughshares, nor bind ledgers in enamel.
    • Chapter IV: The Lamp of Beauty, section 19
  • When we build, let us think that we build for ever.
    • Chapter VI: The Lamp of Memory, section 10
  • How false is the conception, how frantic the pursuit, of that treacherous phantom which men call Liberty.
    • Chapter VII: The Lamp of Obedience, section 1

The Stones of Venice (1853)[endre]

Remember that the most beautiful things in the world are the most useless: peacocks and lilies, for instance.
We blanch cotton, and strengthen steel, and refine sugar, and shape pottery; but to brighten, to strengthen, to refine, or to form a single living spirit, never enters into our estimate of advantages.
  • You were made for enjoyment, and the world was filled with things which you will enjoy, unless you are too proud to be pleased with them, or too grasping to care for what you cannot turn to other account than mere delight. Remember that the most beautiful things in the world are the most useless: peacocks and lilies, for instance.
    • Volume I, chapter II, section 17
  • In old times, men used their powers of painting to show the objects of faith; in later times, they used the objects of faith that they might show their powers of painting.
    • Volume II, chapter IV, section 103
  • Of all God's gifts to the sight of man, colour is the holiest, the most divine, the most solemn.
    • Volume II, chapter V, section 30
  • You must either make a tool of the creature, or a man of him. You cannot make both. Men were not intended to work with the accuracy of tools, to be precise and perfect in all their actions. If you will have that precision out of them, and make their fingers measure degrees like cog-wheels, and their arms strike curves like compasses, you must unhumanize them. All the energy of their spirits must be given to make cogs and compasses of themselves….On the other hand, if you will make a man of the working creature, you cannot make him a tool. Let him but begin to imagine, to think, to try to do anything worth doing; and the engine-turned precision is lost at once. Out come all his roughness, all his dulness, all his incapability; shame upon shame, failure upon failure, pause after pause: but out comes the whole majesty of him also; and we know the height of it only when we see the clouds settling upon him.
    • Volume II, chapter VI, section 12
  • We have much studied and much perfected, of late, the great civilized invention of the division of labour; only we give it a false name. It is not, truly speaking, the labour that it divided; but the men: — Divided into mere segments of men — broken into small fragments and crumbs of life; so that all the little piece of intelligence that is left in a man is not enough to make a pin, or a nail, but exhausts itself in making the point of a pin or the head of a nail. Now it is a good and desirable thing, truly, to make many pins in a day; but if we could only see with what crystal sand their points were polished, — sand of human soul, much to be magnified before it can be discerned for what it is — we should think that there might be some loss in it also. And the great cry that rises from our manufacturing cities, louder than their furnace blast, is all in very deed for this, — that we manufacture everything there except men; we blanch cotton, and strengthen steel, and refine sugar, and shape pottery; but to brighten, to strengthen, to refine, or to form a single living spirit, never enters into our estimate of advantages. And all the evil to which that cry is urging our myriads can be met only in one way: not by teaching nor preaching, for to teach them is but to show them their misery, and to preach at them, if we do nothing more than preach, is to mock at it. It can only be met by a right understanding, on the part of all classes, of what kinds of labour are good for men, raising them, and making them happy; by a determined sacrifice of such convenience or beauty, or cheapness as is to be got only by the degradation of the workman; and by equally determined demand for the products and results of healthy and ennobling labour.
    • Volume II, chapter VI, section 16
  • We are to remember, in the first place, that the arrangement of colours and lines is an art analogous to the composition of music, and entirely independent of the representation of facts. Good colouring does not necessarily convey the image of anything but itself. It consists of certain proportions and arrangements of rays of light, but not in likeness to anything. A few touches of certain greys and purples laid by a master's hand on white paper will be good colouring; as more touches are added beside them, we may find out that they were intended to represent a dove's neck, and we may praise, as the drawing advances, the perfect imitation of the dove's neck. But the good colouring does not consist in that imitation, but in the abstract qualities and relations of the grey and purple.
    • Volume II, chapter VI, section 42
  • The world is full of vulgar Purists, who bring discredit on all selection by the silliness of their choice; and this the more, because the very becoming a Purist is commonly indicative of some slight degree of weakness, readiness to be offended, or narrowness of understanding of the ends of things.
    • Volume II, chapter VI, section 62
  • The work of science is to substitute facts for appearances, and demonstrations for impressions.
    • Volume III
  • He who has the truth at his heart need never fear the want of persuasion on his tongue.
    • Volume III, chapter II, section 99

Modern Painters (1843-1860)[endre]

The infinity of God is not mysterious, it is only unfathomable; not concealed, but incomprehensible; it is a clear infinity, the darkness of the pure unsearchable sea.
The word "Blue" does not mean the sensation caused by a gentian on the human eye; but it means the power of producing that sensation: and this power is always there, in the thing, whether we are there to experience it or not...
All violent feelings have the same effect. They produce in us a falseness in all our impressions of external things, which I would generally characterize as the "Pathetic Fallacy."
To see clearly is poetry, prophecy, and religion, — all in one.
Be a plain topographer if you possibly can; if Nature meant you to be anything else, she will force you to it; but never try to be a prophet.
  • He is the greatest artist who has embodied, in the sum of his works, the greatest number of the greatest ideas.
    • Volume I, part I, chapter II, section 9 (1843)
  • The infinity of God is not mysterious, it is only unfathomable; not concealed, but incomprehensible; it is a clear infinity, the darkness of the pure unsearchable sea.
    • Volume II, part III, chapter V (1846)
  • There is never vulgarity in a whole truth, however commonplace. It may be unimportant or painful. It cannot be vulgar. Vulgarity is only in concealment of truth, or in affectation.
    • Volume III, part IV, chapter VII (1856)
  • The word "Blue" does not mean the sensation caused by a gentian on the human eye; but it means the power of producing that sensation: and this power is always there, in the thing, whether we are there to experience it or not, and would remain there though there were not a man left on the face of the earth.
    • Volume III, part IV, chapter XII (1856)
  • All violent feelings have the same effect. They produce in us a falseness in all our impressions of external things, which I would generally characterize as the "Pathetic Fallacy."
    • Volume III, part IV, chapter XII (1856)
  • And thus, in full, there are four classes: the men who feel nothing, and therefore see truly; the men who feel strongly, think weakly, and see untruly (second order of poets); the men who feel strongly, think strongly, and see truly (first order of poets); and the men who, strong as human creatures can be, are yet submitted to influences stronger than they, and see in a sort untruly, because what they see is inconceivably above them. This last is the usual condition of prophetic inspiration.
    • Volume III, part IV, chapter XII (1856)
  • It is only the basest writer who cannot speak of the sea without talking of "raging waves," "remorseless floods," "ravenous billows," etc.; and it is one of the signs of the highest power in a writer to check all such habits of thought, and to keep his eyes fixed firmly on the pure fact, out of which if any feeling comes to him or his reader, he knows it must be a true one.
    • Volume III, part IV, chapter XII (1856)
  • The greatest thing a human soul ever does in this world is to see something, and tell what it saw in a plain way. Hundreds of people can talk for one who can think, but thousands can think for one who can see. To see clearly is poetry, prophecy, and religion, — all in one.
    • Volume III, part IV, chapter XVI (1856)
  • To invent a story, or admirably and thoroughly tell any part of a story, it is necessary to grasp the entire mind of every personage concerned in it, and know precisely how they would be affected by what happens; which to do requires a colossal intellect: but to describe a separate emotion delicately, it is only needed that one should feel it oneself; and thousands of people are capable of feeling this or that noble emotion, for one who is able to enter into all the feelings of someone sitting on the other side of the table.
    • Volume III, part IV, chapter XVI (1856)
  • In general, when the imagination is at all noble, it is irresistible, and therefore those who can at all resist it ought to resist it. Be a plain topographer if you possibly can; if Nature meant you to be anything else, she will force you to it; but never try to be a prophet.
    • Volume III, part V, chapter II (1856)
  • It is not possible to find a landscape, which if painted precisely as it is, will not make an impressive picture. No one knows, till he has tried, what strange beauty and subtle composition is prepared to his hand by Nature.
    • Volume III, part V, chapter II (1856)
  • In general, pride is at the bottom of all great mistakes.
    • Volume IV, part V, chapter III, section 22 (1856)
  • All true opinions are living, and show their life by being capable of nourishment; therefore of change. But their change is that of a tree — not of a cloud.
    • Volume V, Preface (1860)
  • Expression, sentiment, truth to nature, are essential: but all those are not enough. I never care to look at a picture again, if it be ill composed; and if well composed I can hardly leave off looking at it.
    • Volume V, part VIII, chapter I, section 2 (1860)
  • The power which causes the several portions of the plant to help each other, we call life. Much more is this so in an animal. We may take away the branch of a tree without much harm to it; but not the animal's limb. Thus, intensity of life is also intensity of helpfulness — completeness of depending of each part on all the rest. The ceasing of this help is what we call corruption; and in proportion to the perfectness of the help, is the dreadfulness of the loss. The more intense the life has been, the more terrible is its corruption.
    • Volume V, part VIII, chapter 1, section 4 (1860)
  • In painting as in eloquence, the greater your strength, the quieter your manner.
    • Volume V, part VIII, chapter III (1860)
  • Other men used their effete faiths and mean faculties with a high moral purpose. The Venetian gave the most earnest faith, and the lordliest faculty, to gild the shadows of an antechamber, or heighten the splendours of a holiday.
    • Volume V, part IX, chapter III, section 52 (1860)
  • A monk of La Trappe, a French soldier of the Imperial Guard, and a thriving mill-owner, supposing each a type, and no more than a type, of his class, are all interesting specimens of humanity, but narrow ones, — so narrow that even all the three together would not make up a perfect man.
    • Volume V, part IX, chapter XI (1860)
  • There are, indeed, two forms of discontent: one laborious, the other indolent and complaining. We respect the man of laborious desire, but let us not suppose that his restlessness is peace, or his ambition meekness. It is because of the special connection of meekness with contentment that it is promised that the meek shall "inherit the earth." Neither covetous men, nor the Grave, can inherit anything; they can but consume. Only contentment can possess.
    • Volume V, part IX, chapter XI (1860)

Unto This Last (1860)[endre]

That country is the richest which nourishes the greatest numbers of noble and happy human beings...
  • “I choose my physician and my clergyman, thus indicating my sense of the quality of their work.” By all means, also, choose your bricklayer; that is the proper reward of the good workman, to be “chosen.” The natural and right system respecting all labour is, that it should be paid at a fixed rate, but the good workman employed, and the bad workman unemployed. The false, unnatural, and destructive system is when the bad workman is allowed to offer his work at half-price, and either take the place of the good, or force him by his competition to work for an inadequate sum.
    • Essay I: "The Roots of Honour," section 29
  • Suppose any person to be put in possession of a large estate of fruitful land, with rich beds of gold in its gravel; countless herds of cattle in its pastures; houses, and gardens, and storehouses full of useful stores; but suppose, after all, that he could get no servants? In order that he may be able to have servants, some one in his neighbourhood must be poor, and in want of his gold — or his corn. Assume that no one is in want of either, and that no servants are to be had. He must, therefore, bake his own bread, make his own clothes, plough his own ground, and shepherd his own flocks. His gold will be as useful to him as any other yellow pebbles on his estate. His stores must rot, for he cannot consume them. He can eat no more than another man could eat, and wear no more than another man could wear. He must lead a life of severe and common labour to procure even ordinary comforts; he will be ultimately unable to keep either houses in repair, or fields in cultivation; and forced to content himself with a poor man's portion of cottage and garden, in the midst of a desert of waste land, trampled by wild cattle, and encumbered by ruins of palaces, which he will hardly mock at himself by calling "his own."
    • Essay II: "The Veins of Wealth," section 29
  • Inequalities of wealth, unjustly established, have assuredly injured the nation in which they exist during their establishment; and, unjustly directed, they injure it yet more during their existence. But inequalities of wealth justly established, benefit the nation in the course of their establishment; and, nobly used, aid it yet more by their existence.
    • Essay II: page 280.
  • And with respect to the mode in which these general principles affect the secure possession of property, so far am I from invalidating such security, that the whole gist of these papers will be found ultimately to aim at an extension in its range; and whereas it has long been known and declared that the poor have no right to the property of the rich, I wish it also to be known and declared that the rich have no right to the property of the poor.
    • Essay III: "Qui Judicatis Terram," section 54
  • There is no wealth but life. Life, including all its powers of love, of joy, and of admiration. That country is the richest which nourishes the greatest numbers of noble and happy human beings; that man is richest, who, having perfected the functions of his own life to the utmost, has also the widest helpful influence, both personal, and by means of his possessions, over the lives of others.
    • Essay IV: "Ad Valorem," section 77

Lectures on Art (1870)[endre]

Life without industry is guilt, and industry without art is brutality.
  • Life without industry is guilt, and industry without art is brutality.
    • Lecture III
  • The secret of language is the secret of sympathy and its full charm is possible only to the gentle.
    • Lecture III
  • The entire vitality of art depends upon its being either full of truth, or full of use; and that, however pleasant, wonderful, or impressive it may be in itself, it must yet be of inferior kind, and tend to deeper inferiority, unless it has clearly one of these main objects, — either to state a true thing, or to adorn a serviceable one.
    • Lecture IV

The Eagle's Nest (1872)[endre]

  • In all base schools of art, the craftsman is dependent for his bread on originality; that is to say, on finding in himself some fragment of isolated faculty, by which his work may be distinct from that of other men. We are ready enough to take delight in our little doings, without any such stimulus; — what must be the effect of the popular applause which continually suggests that the little thing we can separately do is as excellent as it is singular; and what the effect of the bribe, held out to us through the whole of life, to produce — it being also in our peril not to produce — something different from the work of our neighbors?
    • Lecture II, section 32
  • We shall be remembered in history as the most cruel, and therefore the most unwise, generation of men that ever yet troubled the earth: — the most cruel in proportion to their sensibility, — the most unwise in proportion to their science. No people, understanding pain, ever inflicted so much: no people, understanding facts, ever acted on them so little.
    • Lecture II, section 35
  • What do you suppose makes all men look back to the time of childhood with so much regret (if their childhood has been, in any moderate degree, healthy or peaceful)? That rich charm, which the least possession had for us, was in consequence of the poorness of our treasures.
    • Lecture V, section 82
  • Ignorance, which is contented and clumsy, will produce what is imperfect, but not offensive. But ignorance discontented and dexterous, learning what it cannot understand, and imitating what it cannot enjoy, produces the most loathsome forms of manufacture that can disgrace or mislead humanity.
    • Lecture V, section 88

Fors Clavigera (1871-1878 and 1880-1884)[endre]

I am far more provoked at being thought foolish by foolish people, than pleased at being thought sensible by sensible people; and the average proportion of the numbers of each is not to my advantage.
  • You think it a great triumph to make the sun draw brown landscapes for you! That was also a discovery, and some day may be useful. But the sun had drawn landscapes before for you, not in brown, but in green, and blue, and all imaginable colours, here in England. Not one of you ever looked at them, then; not one of you cares for the loss of them, now, when you have shut the sun out with smoke, so that he can draw nothing more, except brown blots through a hole in a box. There was a rocky valley between Buxton and Bakewell, once upon a time, divine as the vale of Tempe; you might have seen the Gods there morning and evening, — Apollo and all the sweet Muses of the Light — walking in fair procession on the lawns of it, and to and fro among the pinnacles of its crags. You cared neither for Gods nor grass, but for cash (which you did not know the way to get); you thought you could get it by what the Times calls "Railroad Enterprise." You Enterprised a Railroad through the valley — you blasted its rocks away, heaped thousands of tons of shale into its lovely stream. The valley is gone, and the gods with it; and now, every fool in Buxton can be at Bakewell in half-an-hour, and every fool in Bakewell at Buxton; which you think a lucrative process of exchange — you Fools Everywhere.
  • An unimaginative person can neither be reverent nor kind.
    • Fors Clavigera, letter xxxiv (October 1873)
  • I am far more provoked at being thought foolish by foolish people, than pleased at being thought sensible by sensible people; and the average proportion of the numbers of each is not to my advantage.
  • Human work must be done thoroughly and honourably because we are now men; whether we ever expect to be angels, or ever were slugs, being practically no matter.